Ink is a kind of fluid substance that is uniformly dispersed in the binder by pigment particles, fillers, additives, etc., and has a certain viscosity.
1, the composition of the ink
The pigment is a color, black or white highly disperse powder material that is insoluble in water and organic solvents and plays a role of color in the ink. According to the source and chemical composition of pigment components, organic pigments and inorganic pigments can be divided into two categories: inorganic pigments are composed of non-ferrous metal oxides or some metal-insoluble metal salts, and inorganic pigments can be further divided into natural inorganic pigments (minerals). Pigments) and artificial inorganic pigments; organic pigments refer to colored organic compounds, which can also be divided into natural and synthetic categories according to their sources. Nowadays, organic inks for printing are basically synthetic organic pigments with complete colors and superior performance to inorganic pigments.
The requirements for ink pigments during printing are high, especially the color purity, dispersion, lightfastness, transparency, and the like. Normally, the hue of the pigment of the color ink is required to be close to the spectral color, the saturation is as large as possible, and the pigment transparency of the three primary color inks (cyan, magenta, and yellow) must be high, otherwise the quality of the printed matter will be greatly affected. Regardless of the kind of pigment, it must have good water resistance, can be quickly and uniformly combined with the binder, and has good acid and alkali resistance, alcohol resistance, heat resistance and other properties.
The binder is a chemical substance that acts as a dispersing pigment, imparts proper viscosity, flowability and transferability to the ink, and fixes the pigment on the surface of the print by filming after printing, commonly known as a varnish. The binder can be made using various materials such as dried vegetable oils, mineral oils, solvents and water, and various synthetic resins. The flowability, viscosity, neutral acid value, shade of color, water resistance, and properties of printed materials during the use of the ink are all determined by the binder. The same pigment can use different binders to make different types of ink; the same kind. Because of the use of different pigments, the connecting material is still made of the same type of ink, because the connecting material does not have to change the fundamental performance of the ink, so the quality of the ink is not only related to the pigment itself, but also depends on the connection. material.
The filler is a white transparent, translucent or opaque powdery substance that acts as a filling. Appropriate use of some pigment fillers, can reduce the amount of pigment to reduce costs, but also can adjust the ink dilute, fluidity, but also can improve the flexibility of the ink formulation design.
Additives are materials that are added to improve the ink's own performance during ink manufacturing or printing. When the ink according to the basic formula still cannot meet the requirements for use in certain characteristics, or when the requirements for printing use cannot be met due to changes in conditions, a small amount of additional material must be added to solve the problem.
2, the type of ink
According to different methods, inks can also be divided into different types. Commonly used are flexographic printing inks, lithographic printing inks, gravure printing inks, screen stencil printing inks, special functional inks, and the like.
Toppan printing inks can be divided into lead-printing inks, lead-printing inks (copper inks), lead-printing plastic inks, rubber letterpress plastic inks (flexible plastic inks), letterpress inks, letterpress printing inks, etc. according to different characteristics. . This type of ink is basically a penetrating dry type ink. In the printing process, it is necessary to pay attention to the occurrence of ill-adherence such as poor adhesion, powdering, and contamination.
Lithographic printing inks include various offset inks, lithographic iron inks, lithographic photosensitive inks, offset thermosetting inks, and the like. Lithographic printing inks require high color strength and water resistance, and have good flowability and drying speed.
Intaglio printing inks include various gravure inks, engraved gravure inks, gravure plastic film inks, and the like.
Silk screen printing inks include screen printing inks, screen plastic inks, oil-type inks, water-type inks, and the like.
In addition to the above-mentioned several commonly used inks, there is also an ink that can play a special effect, such as micro-particle ink, gold and silver ink, fluorescent ink, magnetic ink, security ink, conductive ink, carbon ink, monitoring ink, Temperature indication ink, color ink, edible ink, etc.
3, the characteristics of the ink
Ink is a paste adhesive with a certain degree of fluidity. Viscosity, yield value, thixotropy, fluidity, and drying all determine the performance of the ink.
Viscosity: A property that prevents the flow of fluids. It is a measure of the ability of fluids to interact with each other and create a barrier to their relative mobility between molecules, that is, the resistance to fluid flow. The viscosity of the ink is related to the transfer of the ink in the printing process, the nature and structure of the paper, the viscosity of the ink is too large, the transfer of the ink during the printing process is not easy to uniform, and the phenomenon of pulling on the paper occurs, making the printing on the printing surface; the viscosity is too small. Ink is easy to emulsify, dirty, affect the quality of printed matter. The requirements for the viscosity of the ink in the printing process depend on factors such as the printing speed of the printing press, the degree of public software on the paper structure, and changes in temperature and humidity in the surrounding environment.
Yield value: refers to the minimum movement stress required to start fluid flow. If the ink yield value is too large, the fluidity will deteriorate and it will not be easy to open. If the yield value is too small, the dots at the time of printing will easily start to halo and cause the printed matter to be unclear. The size of the yield value is related to the structure of the ink and has a direct influence on the flow of the ink. It is an important indicator for the quality of offset and gravure inks.
Thixotropy: It refers to the phenomenon that the ink is stirred by the action of stirring when the external force is stirred, and the stirring operation stops and the complex recovers to its original consistency. Due to the thixotropy of the ink, after the ink is rotated by the printing press on the ink roller, the fluidity is increased, the ductility is increased, and the ink is easily transferred; when the ink is transferred to the paper by printing, the external force is lost. The ink thickens from the thin and does not spill around, forming a good print. If the thixotropy of the ink is too large, the ink in the ink fountain is not easily rotated, which affects the ink transfer function of the ink roller.
Fluidity: refers to the ink under its own gravity, will flow like a liquid, by the ink viscosity, yield value and thixotropy decided, but also with the temperature is also closely linked. The fluidity of the ink is related to whether the ink can be poured from the container, transferred from the ink tank to the ink fountain of the printing press, smoothly transferred from the ink fountain, well distributed on the printing press, transferred to the printing Plate, and transferred. On the substrate, it also affects the printing effect.
The length of the ink: refers to the extent to which the ink is initially drawn into a filament without breaking. The length of the ink is related to the thixotropy, yield value, and plastic viscosity of the ink. The ink with short silk ink is an ink with excellent printing performance in offset printing and letterpress printing. It will not cause ink flying in the printing process. At the same time, the ink layer on the print is also uniform and thick. The length of ink is a common method when measuring ink performance.
Drying of ink: Drying of ink refers to the process of the ink changing from liquid or pasty to solid after the ink is attached to the printed matter on the printed matter. This process is changed from the liquid or paste to the side material in the ink. Solid and finished. Because the binder used in various inks and their formulation ratios are not the same, the drying process of the ink is also not the same. After the ink is transferred from the printing plate to the surface of the printing material, part of the connecting material in the ink penetrates, the solvent in the connecting material begins to volatilize, and some of the connecting materials begin to produce a chemical reaction or a physical reaction, so that the ink on the surface of the substrate is imprinted The layer gradually increases its viscosity and hardness, eventually forming a solid film layer. In general, letterpress printing inks are mainly made of permeability drying, lithographic offset printing inks are mainly dried by oxidized conjunctiva, and gravure printing inks are mainly volatile, because they use highly volatile solution as the connecting material.
Prepress printing common sense and demonstration price
1. Paper unit:
A. g: weight of a square meter (length Ã— width Ã· 2) = g is weight
B. Order: 500 sheets of paper said: Order (factory specifications)
C. Ton: 1 ton = 1000 kg, as usual, for the calculation of the price.
2. Paper specifications and names:
A. The most common types of paper are four sizes:
(1). Positive paper: 109.2 cm long and 78.7 cm wide
(2). Large paper: 119.4 cm long and 88.9 cm wide
(3). Stickers: 765 cm long, 535 cm wide
(4). Non-carbon paper: There are positive and large specifications, but there are paper, middle paper, paper, paper prices are different (see paper price classification).
B. The most common name for paper:
(1). Copy paper: 17g positive specifications: used for value-added tax tickets, gift packaging, generally pure white.
(2). Typing paper: 28g positive specifications: for the single. Form, there are seven kinds of color: white, red, yellow, blue, green, light green, purple.
(3). glossy paper: 35-40g positive specification: one side is bright, used for single sheet. form. notes, for low-grade printing paper.
(4). Writing paper: 50-100g generous. Both are positive, used for low-grade prints, with the most domestic paper.
(5). Shuangjiao Zhi: 60-180g generous. Both have positive, used for mid-range print to domestic. Joint venture and import common.
(6). Newsprint: 55-60g roller paper. Positive paper. Newspaper selection.
(7). Carbon-free paper: 40-150g generous. Both are positive, there is a direct copy function, points on. In. Paper,
Upper and lower paper can not be exchanged or turned over. Paper prices are different, there are seven colors, often used in the form of a single.
(8). Coated paper:
A. double copper 80-400g positive. generous are used for high-grade prints.
B. Single copper: used in carton, carton, hand bag, pill box, etc. High-grade printing.
(9). Sub-powder paper: 105-400g for elegant and high-end color printing.
(10). Gray-white paper: 200g or more, white ash, used for packaging.
(11). White cardboard: 200g, double white, used for mid-range packaging.
(12). Kraft paper: 60-200g, used for packaging. Carton. Document bag. Portfolio. Envelope.
(13). Specialty paper: Commonly used for imported paper, it is mainly used for covers, decorations, crafts, and fine prints.
3. Quoting formulas and techniques:
(1). Carefully observe customer strength and customer printing.
(2). Carefully measure the sample size and paper quality and various postpress and prepress processes.
(3). Use the calculator to calculate the cost and profit in detail.
(4). Price quoted in pun, price is not high (refers to not higher than the customer's psychological price) price is not low (referring to lower than the peer price).
(5). Bargaining refers to the rationale and argument for negotiating a bid with the customer.
Such as: selection of paper size, good or bad paper, domestic and imported film, printing quality, delivery time, what kind of machine printing and other advanced. Good conditions for the other party to accept your offer.
(6). Demeanor: Sophisticated. Generous. Honest. Responsibility
(7). Language and qi: politeness, speak civility, talk after laughter, not humble.
4. School drafts and delivery tips:
(1). The school draft makes the other party pay attention, pay attention to the text, specification, color sample, delivery time, etc., and let the customer approve. Signature.
(2) Distribute customer's attention (product shortages) at the time of delivery to excellent introduction, customer care point introduction, and customer satisfaction as termination.
5. Withdrawal and payment tips:
(1). Explain the reason for the deposit to the customer:
A. Copying, Proofing, Investment Cost
B. Make customers sincere
C. Refused to deceive speech expressions to allow customers to understand the deposit inevitability.
(2) After the acceptance of the goods, the customer must sign the bill (delivery note), and then provide the customer with the receipt voucher (receipt. invoice) to allow the customer to perform the agreement or contract payment method.
Tell us more about the difficulties, talk less about each other, and let customers not pay a little sense.
In fact, due to other reasons can not pay, so that the other party's leader signed the payment and write down the next payment time.
6. Fault and quality problems how to deal with:
(1). The other party faults, according to the actual number and attitude of customers to resolve peacefully, so that the other party to bear the paper as much as possible, printing fees, and other costs, the two sides reached a consensus through consultation
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